1 Steele, David N. and Thomas, Curtis C., The Five Points of Calvinism. Phillipsburg, N.J.: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company. 1963. P.13.
2 Roger Nicole, in an article entitled “Arminianism,” found in Baker’s Dictionary of Theology. P.64.

3 Warburton, Ben A., Calvinism. Grand Rapids, Mi.: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1955. P.61.
4 Palmer, Edwin H., The Five Points of Calvinism. Grand Rapids, Mi.: Baker Book House, 1972., P.27.

5 Palmer, Five Points, p.41
6 Pink, A. W., The Sovereignty of God. I. C. Herendeen, 1930. Paperback edition by Baker Book House, 1976. P.20
7 Harper, Steve, John Wesley’s Message for Today. Grand Rapids, Mi. Zondervan Publishing Co., 1983. P.40.
8 Steele & Thomas, Five Points. P 16.
9 Palmer, Five Points. P.47.
10 Steele and Thomas, Five Points. P.46.
11 Palmer, Five Points. P.27.
12 Steele & Thomas, Five Points. P. 16.
13 Packer, J.I., Evangelism and the Sovereignty of God. Downers Grove, Ill.: Inter Varsity Press, 1961. P.10.
14 Palmer, Five Points. P.54.
15 Abbot, Edwin A. Flatland. Oxford, England. Basil Blackwell, 1962.
16 In the mind of a dispensationalist, this may be an example that sets itself up for failure. John the Baptist was “pre-grace.” But the point is still valid. For example, believers were filled with the spirit on the day of Pentecost, and it was evidenced by tongues of fire. Elsewhere in the book of acts, they were not. The passage in Romans 9 should not be used to prop up an argument for election of individuals, simply because it is convenient to do so.
17 The arguments that need to be made here to prove everything that needs to be understood about this passage are numerous and complex. For instance, when Paul quoted the Old Testament where God said, “as it is written, Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated,” God was by that point speaking of a hatred toward the tribe of Esau, but by then, His hatred for them could easily be argued to be because of their wickedness. When Paul quoted it here, as a reference to support the idea spoken by God to Rebekkah in Genesis, he was also speaking, in a sense, from a perspective that needs to be seen similar to what the Old Testament writer took about God hardening Pharaoh’s heart, and then would refer to Pharaoh hardening his own heart. This concept will be covered in the chapter titled, “The Hardened Heart” and the concept is paralleled here. I simply make reference to the meaning of the words “loved” and “hated” in this passage to help try to clarify a difficult concept that is beyond the scope of this book, namely, understanding the way first century teachers used hyperbole and metaphor in teaching style. By the time, in the prophets, where God did love Jacob, and hate Esau, it was, as I said, because of their wickedness by that point. But the argument could also be made that God did not decree “the older will serve the younger,” so much as He was merely foretelling what would occur because of their choices they, as twins, would be making later in the course of their lives.

18 Frangipane, Francis. The Three Battlegrounds. Advancing Church Publications. ISBN 0-9629049-0-2. P. 34.
19 Harrison, Everett F., The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, vol. 10. Grand Rapids, Mi.: Zondervan Publishing Co., 1976. Pp.97-98.

20 Johnson, Alan F., Everyman’s Bible Commentary: Romans—The Freedom Letter, Vol. 1 Chicago, Ill.: Moody Press, 1985. P. 36.
21 Wesley, John. Reprinted in Light upon the Word, compiled by H.F. Stevenson. Old Tappan, New Jersey: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1975. P.13-17.

22 F.F. Bruce, The letter of Paul to the Romans—and Introduction and Commentary. Grand rapids, Mi. William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co. 1985. p.168.

23 Barclay, William F. The Daily Study Bible The Letter to the Romans. Burlington, Ont.: G. R. Welch Company. 1975. P.114.

24 The reader must always view a scripture passage with an eye for looking for the writer’s primary style and mood, and these should be allowed to speak most clearly for the intent of the passage. Then we should focus on using it first and foremost for supporting the truth it was intended to convey. If we think we see a truth in a passage that is only an implication from the text, we need to be judicious in using it as a proof text, particularly if there are other passages of scripture which could just as well weigh against the position. Or if careful analysis of the original language reveals it to be an idiomatic usage of Greek or Hebrew, we should avoid imposing a meaning from the literal translation of the phrase, simply because we like the literal meaning better. This text should not be used, as the Calvinist would typically do, to teach all that is implied in the doctrines of unconditional election and limited atonement.

25  Palmer, Five Points. P.36

26  Palmer, Five Points. P.128

27  Wesley, in Light upon the Word. P.17.

28  Frangipane, Francis. The Three Battlegrounds. P.67.

29  The Greek in this passage reads, “Simon, Simon! Indeed, Satan has asked for you (plural), that he may sift you (plural) as wheat. But I have prayed for you (singular), that your (singular) faith should not fail, and when you (singular) have returned to me, strengthen your brethren.”
30 Smith, Oswald J., The Passion for Souls. Burlington, Ont.: G. R. Welch Company. P.26.

31  Frangipane, The Three Battlegrounds. P.60-61

32  Smith, The Passion for Souls. P.61.

33  Palmer, Five Points. P.37

34  Palmer, Five Points. P.36-37

35  Wermbrand, Richard. 100 Prison Meditations. Reading, Great Britain: Cox and Wyman. P.14

36  Smith, The Passion for Souls, p.46)

37  MacArthur, John F. Jr., The Gospel According to Jesus. Grand Rapids, Mi.: Zondervan Publishing Company. 1988. P.190.

38 Lewis, C.S. The Great Divorce. New York, NY. Harper Collins Publishers, Inc. (2001 Edition). P. 69.

39  Packer, Evangelism and the Sovereignty of God. P.10.

40  Smith, The Passion for Souls, P.27.

41  Encyclopedia of 7700 Illustrations: Signs of the Times. Rockville, Md.: Assurance Publishers, 1979. P.1045.